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考试 | 期末英语考点大复习

2019-11-25 11:44:04  来源:西安爱智康 文章作者:西安爱智康

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1
名词:有可数名词和不可数名词

1、可数名词有单数、复数之分

名词复数形式的构成规则:

(1) 一般在名词词尾加“s”

如:teacher—teachers       

        egg---eggs

 

(2) 以s, x, sh, ch结尾的名词加es

如:class---classes  

        box-- boxes    

        bus --buses  

        watch--watches

 

(3) 以辅音字母+y 的名词变y为i再加es

如:story---stories      

       library---libraries,

       dictionary----dictionaries      

       hobby---hobbies

 

(4) 以f, fe 结尾的名词,变f, fe为v加es

如:life ---lives   

       leaf ---leaves    

       half---halves

       knife---knives  

       wolf-wolves   

       wife---wives

 

(5) 以o结尾的名词“英雄芒果土豆西红柿”加es

       hero---heroes       

       mango--- mangoes

       potato--- potatoes   

       tomato--- tomatoes

  

      其余加s(目前所学的词) 

       zoo---zoos   

       kilo---kilos

       radio—radios    

       photo--- photos    

       piano-- pianos

 

(6)不规则名词单复数形式

如:  child — children    

          woman --- women  

          man ---men      

          foot---feet   

          tooth---teeth

 

有的可数名词单、复数形式相同

如 Japanese,Chinese,sheep

如: I have one sheep. He has two sheep.

 

2、不可数名词没有复数形式

不可数名词有:

(1)milk, water, juice, tea, ice;

(2) food, rice, meat, fish, chicken, bread, cheese

(3) paper, newspaper , hair, time, money, homework, housework

 

不可数名词的数量常表示如下

two bottles of milk     

a cup of juice   

half a kilo of cheese

a bag of rice      

three kilos of meat    

some water

 

2
人称代词

人称代词包括主格和宾格。主格在句中作主语,宾格用于动词或介词后作宾语。

 

主格:I we you he she it they

宾格:me us you him her it them

 

We are going to have a picnic.         

Let us go.

 

I miss everyone in China.          

Who can help me?

 

What is he doing?  

He is trying to get on the bus.     

Look at him.

 

She can’t hear.    

This dog helps her.

 

Tell me more about the Great Wall.

 

 

3
物主代词

 

物主代词包括形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。

形容词性物主代词后需跟名词,名词性物主代词后不用跟。

 

名词性物主代词含义=形容词性物主代词+名词 的含义

 

形容词性物主代词:my our your his her its their

 

名词性物主代词:mine ours yours his hers its theirs

 

This is my book. = This book is mine.

This is his bag.  = This bag is his.

Your watch is old, but hers is new.

Thanksgiving is my favourite festival.

We say “Thank you” for our food, family and friends.

 

4
疑问词

who 谁   what 什么 

when 什么时候  

what time 几点    where 哪里  

why 为什么    how 怎样   

how much 多少  

how many 多少    

how old 多大   whose 谁的

what colour 什么颜色   

how long 多长

 

1.   对人物提问用 who

Who gave it to you?     

Simon’s family gave it to me.

 

Who can help me?      

I can help you.

 

2.   对事物或做某事提问用 what

What do you want?            

I want a hot dog.

 

What are you doing?           

I am reading a book.

 

What are you going to study?   

I’m going to study English.

 

What are you going to do?     

We’re going to walk around the lake.

 

What’s it about?             

It’s about animals.

 

3.   对时间提问用 when

When are you going to eat?    

We’re going to eat at half past twelve.

 

When was he born?          

He was born in 1809.

 

4.   对点钟提问用 what time

What time is it?      

It’s twelve.

 

What time do you get up?     

I get up at six o’clock.

 

5.   对地点提问用 where

Where was he born?       

He was born in France.

 

Where are you?           

I am on the train.

 

Where’s your mum?       

She’s at the supermarket.

 

6.   对原因提问用 why

Why are you wearing a raincoat?    

Because it’s going to rain.

 

7.   对身体状况或方式提问用 how

How are you?   

I’m fine.

 

How are you going to go to school?  

I’m going to go to school by bus.

 

8.   对价钱或不可数名词的数量提问用 how much

How much is it?     

It’s thirteen dollars and twenty-five cents.

 

How much milk do you want?     

I want two bottles of milk.

 

9.   对可数名词的数量提问用 how many

How many books are there on the desk?

There are three books on the desk.

 

10. 对年龄提问用 how old

How old are you?     

I’m twelve.

 

11.  对“某人的”提问用 whose

Whose cap is this?      

It’s Amy’s cap.

 

Whose pen is that?      

It’s his pen.

 

12.  对颜色提问用 what colour

What colour is it?        

It’s black.

 

13.  对星期提问用 what day

What day is it today?      

It’s Monday.

 

14.   How long is it?

It’s about six thousand seven hundred kilometers.

 

5
时态

1.   一般过去时

表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态。经常与表示过去的时间连用。如yesterday(昨天), last week(上周), last month(上个月), last year(去年), two months ago(两个月前)等。

 

构成:

(1)肯定句:主语+动词过去式+ ……

     He made a video.

     

否定句:主语+didn't +动词原形+ ……

He didn’t make a video.

     

一般疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形+ …….?

Did he make a video?

        

(2) be动词用was, were .  否定句在was, were后加not.  一般疑问句把was, were提前到句首。

    She was born in America.

    She was not born in America.

    Was she born in America?

 

2. 现在进行时

  表示现在正在进行的动作

构成:主语+am /is / are+ 现在分词+……

The birds are singing in the trees.

 

否定句在am /is / are后加not. 

The birds are not singing in the trees.

 

一般疑问句把am /is / are提前到句首。

Are the birds singing in the trees?

 

3.一般将来时

表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态。经常与表示将来的时间连用。如tomorrow (明天), next week(下周), next year(明年)等。

 

构成:

(1) 主语+ will + 动词原形+……

He will pick up the apples.

 

否定句在will后加not. 

He will not pick up the apples.

 

一般疑问句把will提前到句首。

Will he pick up the apples?

 

(2) 主语+ be going to + 动词原形+……

We are going to study French.

 

否定句在am /is / are后加not

We are not going to study French.

 

一般疑问句把am /is / are提前到句首

Are you going to study French?

 

4. 一般现在时

表示经常性,习惯性的动作或存在的状态。

 

构成:

(1)主语+am /is / are+……

        

否定句在am /is / are后加not.  一般疑问句把am /is / are提前到句首。

Helen Keller is a model for blind people and for you and me.

     

(2) 肯定句:主语+动词原形+ ……

      The ducks like it.

      

否定句:主语+don't +动词原形+ ……

The ducks don’t like it.

 

一般疑问句:Do +主语+动词原形+ …….?

Do the ducks like it?

 

(3) 肯定句:主语(三单)+动词第三人称单数形式+ ……

      He likes noodles.

 

否定句:主语+doesn't +动词原形+ ……

He doesn’t like noodles.

 

 

一般疑问句:Does +主语+动词原形+ …….?

Does he like noodles

 

6
动词过去式形式

规则动词的过去式构成

1.一般在动词词尾加ed

如: work --- worked   

        play---played   

        watch-- watched

 

2.以e 结尾动词在词尾加d

如: live --- lived  

 

3.以辅音字母 + y结尾的动词,把y变为i 再加ed

如: study ---studied  

         copy---copied   

         cry---cried   

         carry---carried

 

4.有些动词双写最后一个字母再加ed

如:stop ---stopped     

       drop--- dropped

 

5.不规则动词的过去式变化规律性不强,须多加记忆。

动词原形  动词过去式  动词原形   动词过去式

go             went    

come        came

become    became  

bring         brought

say           said      

put            put

teach        taught    

can           could

read          read  

give          gave

am/is        was  

are           were

do             did  

fly             flew                        

have         had 

make        made

run            ran   

see           saw

ride           rode   

win           won

get            got   

tell             told

eat            ate   

send         sent

take          took  

buy           bought

sit             sat  

meet         met

write         wrote  

draw         drew

swim        swam   

fly             flew 

rink           rank  

give          gave

ring           rang   

fall            fell

 

7
动词ing形式也是现在分词形式

现在分词的构成规则

1.一般在动词词尾直接加“ing”

sleep---sleeping 

look---looking      

wear---wearing

send---sending  

eat---eating        

sing---singing 

go---going         

jump---jumping    

play---playing

 

2.以不发音的e结尾的动词要去掉e再加上“ing”

write---writing      

come---coming         

ride---riding 

have---having    

make---making      

shine---shining  

take---taking       

close-- closing

 

3.有些动词双写最后一个字母再加“ing”

get---getting    

put---putting    

sit---sitting    

run---running     

swim---swimming    

skip---skipping    

shop---shopping

 

8
动词第三人称单数形式

动词第三人称单数的构成规则

1.大多数动词在词尾加“S”

stop-stops     

make-makes    

read-reads  

play-plays     

say [sei]-says [sez]

 

2.以辅音字母加“y”结尾的,要先将“y”变为“i”,然后在加“es”   

fly-flies  

carry-carries  

study-studies  

worry-worries

 

3.以“s, x, sh,ch, o”结尾,在词尾加“es”.

teach-teaches  

watch-watches   

go— goes   

do-- does

 

1
名词:有可数名词和不可数名词

1、可数名词有单数、复数之分

名词复数形式的构成规则:

(1) 一般在名词词尾加“s”

如:teacher—teachers       

        egg---eggs

 

(2) 以s, x, sh, ch结尾的名词加es

如:class---classes  

        box-- boxes    

        bus --buses  

        watch--watches

 

(3) 以辅音字母+y 的名词变y为i再加es

如:story---stories      

       library---libraries,

       dictionary----dictionaries      

       hobby---hobbies

 

(4) 以f, fe 结尾的名词,变f, fe为v加es

如:life ---lives   

       leaf ---leaves    

       half---halves

       knife---knives  

       wolf-wolves   

       wife---wives

 

(5) 以o结尾的名词“英雄芒果土豆西红柿”加es

       hero---heroes       

       mango--- mangoes

       potato--- potatoes   

       tomato--- tomatoes

  

      其余加s(目前所学的词) 

       zoo---zoos   

       kilo---kilos

       radio—radios    

       photo--- photos    

       piano-- pianos

 

(6)不规则名词单复数形式

如:  child — children    

          woman --- women  

          man ---men      

          foot---feet   

          tooth---teeth

 

有的可数名词单、复数形式相同

如 Japanese,Chinese,sheep

如: I have one sheep. He has two sheep.

 

2、不可数名词没有复数形式

不可数名词有:

(1)milk, water, juice, tea, ice;

(2) food, rice, meat, fish, chicken, bread, cheese

(3) paper, newspaper , hair, time, money, homework, housework

 

不可数名词的数量常表示如下

two bottles of milk     

a cup of juice   

half a kilo of cheese

a bag of rice      

three kilos of meat    

some water

 

2
人称代词

人称代词包括主格和宾格。主格在句中作主语,宾格用于动词或介词后作宾语。

 

主格:I we you he she it they

宾格:me us you him her it them

 

We are going to have a picnic.         

Let us go.

 

I miss everyone in China.          

Who can help me?

 

What is he doing?  

He is trying to get on the bus.     

Look at him.

 

She can’t hear.    

This dog helps her.

 

Tell me more about the Great Wall.

 

 

3
物主代词

 

物主代词包括形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。

形容词性物主代词后需跟名词,名词性物主代词后不用跟。

 

名词性物主代词含义=形容词性物主代词+名词 的含义

 

形容词性物主代词:my our your his her its their

 

名词性物主代词:mine ours yours his hers its theirs

 

This is my book. = This book is mine.

This is his bag.  = This bag is his.

Your watch is old, but hers is new.

Thanksgiving is my favourite festival.

We say “Thank you” for our food, family and friends.

 

4
疑问词

who 谁   what 什么 

when 什么时候  

what time 几点    where 哪里  

why 为什么    how 怎样   

how much 多少  

how many 多少    

how old 多大   whose 谁的

what colour 什么颜色   

how long 多长

 

1.   对人物提问用 who

Who gave it to you?     

Simon’s family gave it to me.

 

Who can help me?      

I can help you.

 

2.   对事物或做某事提问用 what

What do you want?            

I want a hot dog.

 

What are you doing?           

I am reading a book.

 

What are you going to study?   

I’m going to study English.

 

What are you going to do?     

We’re going to walk around the lake.

 

What’s it about?             

It’s about animals.

 

3.   对时间提问用 when

When are you going to eat?    

We’re going to eat at half past twelve.

 

When was he born?          

He was born in 1809.

 

4.   对点钟提问用 what time

What time is it?      

It’s twelve.

 

What time do you get up?     

I get up at six o’clock.

 

5.   对地点提问用 where

Where was he born?       

He was born in France.

 

Where are you?           

I am on the train.

 

Where’s your mum?       

She’s at the supermarket.

 

6.   对原因提问用 why

Why are you wearing a raincoat?    

Because it’s going to rain.

 

7.   对身体状况或方式提问用 how

How are you?   

I’m fine.

 

How are you going to go to school?  

I’m going to go to school by bus.

 

8.   对价钱或不可数名词的数量提问用 how much

How much is it?     

It’s thirteen dollars and twenty-five cents.

 

How much milk do you want?     

I want two bottles of milk.

 

9.   对可数名词的数量提问用 how many

How many books are there on the desk?

There are three books on the desk.

 

10. 对年龄提问用 how old

How old are you?     

I’m twelve.

 

11.  对“某人的”提问用 whose

Whose cap is this?      

It’s Amy’s cap.

 

Whose pen is that?      

It’s his pen.

 

12.  对颜色提问用 what colour

What colour is it?        

It’s black.

 

13.  对星期提问用 what day

What day is it today?      

It’s Monday.

 

14.   How long is it?

It’s about six thousand seven hundred kilometers.

 

5
时态

1.   一般过去时

表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态。经常与表示过去的时间连用。如yesterday(昨天), last week(上周), last month(上个月), last year(去年), two months ago(两个月前)等。

 

构成:

(1)肯定句:主语+动词过去式+ ……

     He made a video.

     

否定句:主语+didn't +动词原形+ ……

He didn’t make a video.

     

一般疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形+ …….?

Did he make a video?

        

(2) be动词用was, were .  否定句在was, were后加not.  一般疑问句把was, were提前到句首。

    She was born in America.

    She was not born in America.

    Was she born in America?

 

2. 现在进行时

  表示现在正在进行的动作

构成:主语+am /is / are+ 现在分词+……

The birds are singing in the trees.

 

否定句在am /is / are后加not. 

The birds are not singing in the trees.

 

一般疑问句把am /is / are提前到句首。

Are the birds singing in the trees?

 

3.一般将来时

表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态。经常与表示将来的时间连用。如tomorrow (明天), next week(下周), next year(明年)等。

 

构成:

(1) 主语+ will + 动词原形+……

He will pick up the apples.

 

否定句在will后加not. 

He will not pick up the apples.

 

一般疑问句把will提前到句首。

Will he pick up the apples?

 

(2) 主语+ be going to + 动词原形+……

We are going to study French.

 

否定句在am /is / are后加not

We are not going to study French.

 

一般疑问句把am /is / are提前到句首

Are you going to study French?

 

4. 一般现在时

表示经常性,习惯性的动作或存在的状态。

 

构成:

(1)主语+am /is / are+……

        

否定句在am /is / are后加not.  一般疑问句把am /is / are提前到句首。

Helen Keller is a model for blind people and for you and me.

     

(2) 肯定句:主语+动词原形+ ……

      The ducks like it.

      

否定句:主语+don't +动词原形+ ……

The ducks don’t like it.

 

一般疑问句:Do +主语+动词原形+ …….?

Do the ducks like it?

 

(3) 肯定句:主语(三单)+动词第三人称单数形式+ ……

      He likes noodles.

 

否定句:主语+doesn't +动词原形+ ……

He doesn’t like noodles.

 

 

一般疑问句:Does +主语+动词原形+ …….?

Does he like noodles

 

6
动词过去式形式

规则动词的过去式构成

1.一般在动词词尾加ed

如: work --- worked   

        play---played   

        watch-- watched

 

2.以e 结尾动词在词尾加d

如: live --- lived  

 

3.以辅音字母 + y结尾的动词,把y变为i 再加ed

如: study ---studied  

         copy---copied   

         cry---cried   

         carry---carried

 

4.有些动词双写最后一个字母再加ed

如:stop ---stopped     

       drop--- dropped

 

5.不规则动词的过去式变化规律性不强,须多加记忆。

动词原形  动词过去式  动词原形   动词过去式

go             went    

come        came

become    became  

bring         brought

say           said      

put            put

teach        taught    

can           could

read          read  

give          gave

am/is        was  

are           were

do             did  

fly             flew                        

have         had 

make        made

run            ran   

see           saw

ride           rode   

win           won

get            got   

tell             told

eat            ate   

send         sent

take          took  

buy           bought

sit             sat  

meet         met

write         wrote  

draw         drew

swim        swam   

fly             flew 

rink           rank  

give          gave

ring           rang   

fall            fell

 

7
动词ing形式也是现在分词形式

现在分词的构成规则

1.一般在动词词尾直接加“ing”

sleep---sleeping 

look---looking      

wear---wearing

send---sending  

eat---eating        

sing---singing 

go---going         

jump---jumping    

play---playing

 

2.以不发音的e结尾的动词要去掉e再加上“ing”

write---writing      

come---coming         

ride---riding 

have---having    

make---making      

shine---shining  

take---taking       

close-- closing

 

3.有些动词双写最后一个字母再加“ing”

get---getting    

put---putting    

sit---sitting    

run---running     

swim---swimming    

skip---skipping    

shop---shopping

 

8
动词第三人称单数形式

动词第三人称单数的构成规则

1.大多数动词在词尾加“S”

stop-stops     

make-makes    

read-reads  

play-plays     

say [sei]-says [sez]

 

2.以辅音字母加“y”结尾的,要先将“y”变为“i”,然后在加“es”   

fly-flies  

carry-carries  

study-studies  

worry-worries

 

3.以“s, x, sh,ch, o”结尾,在词尾加“es”.

teach-teaches  

watch-watches   

go— goes   

do-- does

 

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