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“新冠疫情”各科考点预测——英语篇

2020-02-13 14:40:02  来源:网络

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 【相关词汇】

  新型冠状病毒 novel coronavirus / new strain of coronavirus

  呼吸道疾病 respiratory diseases

  禽流感病毒 avian influenza virus

  密切接触者 close contacts潜

  伏期 incubation period

  疑似病例 suspected case

  确诊病例 confirmed case

  得肺炎 get/catch pneumonia

  接受医学观察 under medical observation

  流行病学调查 epidemiological investigation

  病毒爆发 virus outbreak

  遏制疫情爆发 contain the outbreak

  严格隔离政策 strict isolation policy

  携带病毒 carrying the virus

  超级传染源 superspreader

  医疗费用报销 reimbursement for medical expenses

  中国大部分地区口罩供应紧张 tight supplies in large areas of China

  人传人 human-to-human transmission

  医务人员感染 infection of medical worker

 

  ①“冠状病毒”英文怎么说?

coronavirus 冠状病毒 =corona+virus 冠状的+病毒

  而此次“新型冠状病毒”的英文是 novel coronavirus这里的 novel 不是“小说”而是一个形容词,表示“新型的”比如 a novel feature(新特性)例:

  Before this outbreak, six coronaviruses had been identified in humans. Four caused relatively mild cold-like symptoms while the other two, Sars and Middle East respiratory syndrome (Mers), can be fatal.

  此次疫情爆发之前,已知的人类冠状病毒有6种。四种引起相对轻度的类似感冒症状,而另外两种——非典和中东呼吸综合征(MERS)——可能致命。

  coronavirus /kəˈronəvaɪrəs / 冠状病毒

  这个词,可分解为两部分:corona:冠状物 (我们所说的 “日冕” 与 “光圈”,也是这个词)virus:病毒

  Now,the fatal infectious disease caused by "Coronavirus" is called as "Chinese Pneumonia" on the Internet.现在,由于“冠状病毒”所引起的致命性传染病,在网络上被称之为“中国肺炎”。

  fatal /ˈfeɪtl / :a. 致命的;毁灭性的;灾难性的 (对于目前的状况来看,这的确是很丧的一个词儿!)

  infectious disease/ ɪnˈfekʃəs dɪˈziːz / :传染病

  infectious /ɪnˈfekʃəs /:a.传染的 由 infect (v. 传染;感染)+ ious(形容词后缀)构成

  infect / ɪnˈfekt /:v. 传染;感染 由 in (进入,使。)+ fect (做) 构成 ——咱可以想一下儿:传染或感染,不正是有害物质或病毒,侵入体内,对健康的肌体做坏事儿——进行破坏吗?

  infection / ɪnˈfekʃn /:n. 传染 由 infect + -ion (名词后缀)构成

  pneumonia / nuˈmoʊnɪə / n. 肺炎这个词,是由 pneumon- (肺)+ -ia (疾病名词后缀)构成

  冠状病毒通常通过以下途径传播:

  1. the air by coughing and sneezing

  经由空气传播,比如咳嗽、打喷嚏

  2. close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands

  通过人与人之间的近距离接触传播,比如触摸或者握手

  3. touching an object or surface with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes before washing your hands

  通过触摸物品或感染病毒的用品表面传播,原因在于没洗手就触摸嘴、鼻和眼睛

  4. rarely, fecal contamination

  还有一种比较少见的,就是通过粪便传染

 

  ②如何预防“冠状病毒”

  1. Clean hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub.用肥皂或者用含酒精的洗手液洗手。

  2. Cover nose and mouth when coughing and sneezing with tissue or flexed elbow.咳嗽或打喷嚏时,用面巾纸或屈肘捂住口鼻。

  3. Avoid close contact with anyone with cold or flu-like symptoms.避免跟有感冒或流感症状的人密切接触。

  4. Thoroughly cook meat and eggs.将肉类和鸡蛋彻底煮熟。

  5. Avoid unprotected contact with live wild or farm animals. 避免在未加防护的情况下接触野生动物或家畜。

 

  ③外媒相关报道

  1. 什么是冠状病毒?

  What is a coronavirus?Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that are common among animals. In rare cases, they are what scientists call zoonotic, meaning they can betransmitted (传播,动词) from animals to humans, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  冠状病毒是一大类常见于动物的病毒的总称。

  据美国疾病控制和预防中心称,在极少数情况下,科学家称之为“人畜共患疾病”,这意味着它们可以从动物传染给人类。

  2. 冠状病毒症状

  Coronavirus symptoms

  The viruses can make people sick, usually with a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract (上呼吸道) illness, similar to a common cold. 

   For those with a weakened immune system, the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause a lower, and much more serious, respiratory tract illness like a pneumonia (肺炎) or bronchitis (支气管炎).

  There are a handful of human coronaviruses that are known to be deadly (致命的), such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome).

  The Wuhan coronavirus is currently thought to be more mild than SARS and MERS and takes longer to develop symptoms. Patients to date have typically experienced a mild cough for a week followed by shortness of breath (呼吸急促). So far, around 15% to 20% of cases have become severe, requiring, for example, ventilation in the hospital.

  通常表现为轻中度上呼吸道疾病,症状类似于普通感冒。对于免疫力较弱的老年人和儿童,病毒有可能导致更严重的下部呼吸道疾病,如肺炎或支气管炎。

  有些冠状病毒是致命的,如中东呼吸综合征(MERS)和SARS。

  目前认为,武汉冠状病毒相较SARS和MERS更为温和,潜伏时间更长。到目前为止,患者通常在一周内出现轻微咳嗽,随后出现呼吸急促症状。目前,大约15%到20%的病例病情出现恶化情况,需要入院并接受呼吸机治疗。

  3. 传播途径

  How it spreadsViruses can spread from human contact (接触) with animals.

  When it comes to human-to-human transmission (传播,名词) of the viruses, often it happens when someone comes into contact with an infected person's secretions (分泌物), such as droplets (小水滴,飞沫) in a cough.Depending on how virulent the virus is, a cough, sneeze or handshake could causeexposure (暴露,接触). The virus can also be transmitted by touching something an infected person has touched and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes.

  病毒可通过人类与动物的接触传播。

  病毒在人与人之间传播时,通常发生在接触到感染者的分泌物时,例如咳嗽时的飞沫。

  根据病毒的毒力,咳嗽、打喷嚏或握手都可能导致暴露。这种病毒也可以通过触摸被感染者触摸过的东西,然后触摸嘴、鼻子或眼睛来传播。

  4. 感染人群

  Who is affected?MERS, SARS and the Wuhan coronavirus appear to cause more severe disease in older people, though uncertainty remains around the latest outbreak (爆发). Of the cases of Wuhan coronavirus reported so far, none are yet confirmed to be among children. The average age is people 40 or over.

  尽管最近的武汉冠状病毒疫情仍不确定,但MERS、SARS和武汉冠状病毒似乎在老年人中会引起更严重的症状。在迄今报道的武汉冠状病毒病例中,尚未证实有儿童感染。感染者平均年龄在40岁以上。

  5. 冠状病毒感染的治疗

  Coronavirus treatmentThere is no specific treatment, but research is underway. Most of the time, symptoms willgo away on their own (自行消失) and experts advise seeking care early. If symptoms feel worse than a standard cold, see your doctor.Doctors can relieve (缓解) symptoms by prescribing (开处方) a pain or fever medication.

  目前还没有具体的治疗方法,但研究仍在进行中。多数情况下症状会自行消失,但专家建议尽早寻求治疗。如果症状比标准感冒更严重,请看医生。

  医生可以通过开止痛药或退烧药来缓解症状。

  6. 武汉新型冠状病毒严重程度

  Should you worry about the Wuhan coronavirus?The Wuhan coronavirus fatality rate (致死率) is lower than for SARS and MERS, but stillcomparable (相当) to the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic (大流行病). The fatality rate is likely to be lower due to an "iceberg" of milder cases we are yet to find.

  武汉冠状病毒死亡率低于SARS和MERS,但仍与1918年西班牙流感大流行相当。真实的病死率可能会更低,因为可能有大量较轻病例尚未发现。

  7. 如何预防

  How can you can prevent it?You may be able to reduce your risk of infection (感染) by avoiding people who are sick. Try to avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth. Wash your hands often with soap and water and for at least 20 seconds.Awareness is key. If you are sick and have reason to believe it may be the Wuhan coronavirus due to travel to the region or coming into contact with someone who has been there, you should let a health care provider know and seek treatment early.Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze, and disinfect (消毒) the objects and surfaces you touch.

  可以通过避开病人来降低感染的风险。尽量避免触摸眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴。经常用肥皂洗手,每次洗手至少20秒的时间。

  预防意识是关键。如果你前往过武汉或与曾去过那里的人接触,有理由怀疑自己感染了武汉冠状病毒,应报告医疗机构并尽早寻求治疗。咳嗽或喷嚏时捂住口鼻,并对触摸的物体和表面进行消毒。

 

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